Here are a few visualisations for e.

Remember, this is if we interpret number in standard mathematical way, eg -1 as opposite to 1 on a number line, eg root -1 =i mapped on cartesian y axis. That is, spatially.

The trick, if you can, is to interpret number in terms of time. There are several ways. I will explore a few in another post. Just wanted to post these images here for now.

Basic complex plane.

A standard inclusion of time as function of angle, ie rotation.

Bask in all its glory, folks. Check out animated version on wikipedia.

This is approaching the model I intuited in my undergraduate paper decades ago, something I shall need to revisit it seems. Probably take me another decade or two. Imagine that, returning to a structure one first saw nearly three decades before, as a summation of social anthropology. Beggars belief.

### an ancillary perceptual exercise

As an interactive experiment, try inverting the image. I can’t. Well, not easily. What I mean is, apply the following transformation to the above image.

Change your perspective. Either a cube with where you are looking at it at an angle from above and left, or at an angle from below and right. Shift between these two.

Can you apply this mental movement to the animated gif above?